|2005.08.24 11:33||2005.08.24 11:33 | Green Society|
DMZ-Hawai`i / Aloha `Aina and AFSC Hawai`i
The Roots of U.S. Militarization of Hawai`i: Invasion and Occupation.
In the 19th century Hawai`i was a vital refueling and provisioning stop for nearly all transpacific commerce. This made Hawai`i highly desirable to budding U.S. imperialists. By that time the Kanaka Maoli, Hawai`i’s native people had established an independent constitutional monarchy that was recognized by and had treaties with other nations, including the United States, Great Britain and France.
The U.S. military presence in Hawai`i is rooted in the racist and imperialist ideology of “manifest destiny” and a desire to access markets and resources in Asia. In 1873 U.S. military spies picked Waimomi (a.k.a. Pearl Harbor) as the “key to the central Pacific Ocean.” In 1886 haole (white foreigner) business leaders and descendents of missionaries pressured King Kalakaua to sign a new Treaty of Reciprocity that granted the U.S. exclusive use of Pearl Harbor in exchange for dropping the tariff on Hawai`i grown sugar. When Hawaiian nationals protested the cession of Pearl Harbor, the haole elite in Hawai`i staged a coup d’etat and forcibly enacted the "Bayonet Constitution", which weakened the monarch as head of state and disenfranchised most of the non-white population.
When Kalakaua’s successor, Queen Lili`uokalani tried to restore the former Hawaiian constitution, the haole coup leaders conspired with U.S. Minister Stevens to land U.S. troops on January 17, 1893 to oust the Queen. To avoid bloodshed and preserve Hawai`i’s international neutrality, the Queen temporarily yielded her authority to the U.S., fully expecting that the U.S. would honor its treaties to uphold the sovereignty of the Hawaiian nation.
Despite protests by Hawaiian nationals that successfully defeated two attempted treaties of annexation to the U.S., the outbreak of the Spanish-American War triggered the full-scale military occupation of Hawai`i. On July 6, 1898, Congress passed a simple joint resolution that claimed to annex Hawai`i. Virtually overnight, Hawai`i became the hub of the United States’ vast military enterprise in the Pacific and a launching pad for its imperial thrust into Asia.
U.S. occupation brought unbridled military expansion in Hawai`i. Construction of a naval base at Pearl Harbor began in 1900, destroying 36 traditional Hawaiian fishponds and transforming what was once a rich food source for O`ahu into a vast naval station. This was soon to be followed by the construction of Fort Shafter, Fort Ruger, Fort Armstrong, Fort DeRussy, Fort Kamehameha, Fort Weaver and Schofield Barracks. General Macomb wrote “Oahu is to be encircled with a ring of steel.” From 1898 to 1941, Hawai`i was ruled by a haole oligarchy that controlled the government and business and a military occupation that provided the necessary force to control the majority non-white population of Kanaka Maoli and Asian settlers in Hawai`i.
World War II and the Cold War
The Japanese surprise attack on U.S. military targets in Hawai`i on December 7, 1941 provided the long-awaited justification and opportunity for the military to place Hawai`i under martial law. Japanese community leaders with suspected ties to Japan were arrested and put in detention centers and shipped off to concentration camps in America.Large tracts of land were also seized through presidential executive orders, swelling military land holdings to its peak of 600,000 acres (242,806.8 hectares) in 1944.
The transition from World War II to the Cold War transformed Hawai`i from an outer defense for the continental United States into the hub from which the U.S. projected its power outward across the Pacific.
The U.S. Pacific Command (PACOM), the oldest and largest of the United States' unified commands, was established in Hawai`i on January 1,1947. The PACOM area of responsibility stretches over more than 50 percent of the earth’s surface and encompasses 43 countries, 20 territories and possessions and 10 U.S. territories, 60 percent of the world’s population, the world’s six largest armed forces, and five of the seven worldwide U.S. mutual defense treaties.
PACOM has 300,000 military personnel in the theater (one fifth of the total U.S. active-duty military force), including 100,000 forward-deployed troops in the western Pacific. The US military in Hawai’i is, in the words of Kanaka Maoli activist Kaleikoa Kaeo, a monster he`e (octopus). Its head is represented by the Pacific Command, its eyes the mountaintop telescopes and radar facilities, and its brain and nervous system the supercomputers and fiber optic networks that crisscross the islands. The tentacles of the he’e stretch from the west coast of North America to the East Coast of Africa, from Alaska to Antarctica.
The U.S. Military In Hawai’i Today
Hawai`i is intensely militarized:
- According the U.S. Department of Defense, the combined military branches in 2004 have 161 military installations in Hawai`i (4 large, 4 medium and 153 small installations).
- The military controls 236,303 acres (95,626.6 hectares) in Hawai`i, or 5.7 percent of the total land area.
- On O`ahu, the most densely populated island, the military controls 85,718 acres (34,688.2 hectares) out of 382,148 acres (154,646.9 hectares), or 22.4 percent of the island.
- The military also controls vast stretches of ocean, including Defensive Sea Areas in Kane`ohe Bay, from Pearl Harbor to Koko Head, and off the west shore of Kaua`i. The entire Hawaiian archipelago is surrounded by 210,000 square miles (54,388,733.8 hectares) of ocean military operating areas and 58,599 square miles (15,176,787.7 hectares) of military special use airspace.
- According the State of Hawai`i in 2003 there were 44,458 active duty military personnel and 56,572 military dependents living in Hawai`i, the combined total of which amounted to 8 percent of Hawai`i’s population of 1,257,608. Combined with the116,000 retired military personnel living in Hawai`i, the military-connected population totaled 217,030, or 17 percent of Hawai`i's total population. The 2000 U.S. Census found that Hawai`i has the largest percentage of people in the military among the states.
Expropriation of Land
The military taking of land is a major source of conflict in Hawai`i. In 1898, the U.S. seized nearly 1.8 million acres (728,420.5 hectares) of former government and crown lands of the Kingdom of Hawai`i. These so-called “ceded lands” are held in a quasi-trust status by the Federal government and the State. In 1959, when the U.S. admitted Hawai`i as a state, the military retained control of approximately 180,000 acres (72,842 hectares) of the “ceded lands”, while the rest reverted to the State as trustee. Approximately 30,000 acres (12,140.3 hectares) of the land returned to the State were simultaneously leased back to the military for 65 years. In most cases, the rent paid by the military was a token one dollar for the term of the lease. Today, more than 112,173 acres (45,394 hectares), or roughly 54 percent of military-controlled land in Hawai`i consist of the former government and crown lands of the Hawaiian nation. During World War II other private parcels of land were seized by the U.S. to further its war aims.
Threats to Native Hawaiian Cultural Survival
The displacement of Kanaka Maoli from their ancestral lands meant the loss of subsistence and cultural resources. The cultural conflict over `aina (the Hawaiian word for land) goes much deeper than a simple matter of property rights or land use. There is a fundamental contradiction between Kanaka Maoli and western world views about the environment itself. In the Kanaka Maoli cosmology, the `aina is the physical manifestation of the union between the deity Papahanaumoku (Papa who gives birth to islands), the earth-mother, and Wakea, the sky-father. Therefore the `aina is the ancestor of Kanaka Maoli people and could not be owned, sold or defiled. By severing the genealogical ties between Kanaka Maoli and their `aina and by disrupting their ability to practice and transmit their culture to future generations, the military seizure of land continues to have profound impacts on the cultural survival of Kanaka Maoli. Military destruction of land is a form of violence against the people themselves.
Forced cultural assimilation of Kanaka Maoli leads to cultural disintegration. Statistics illustrate the legacy of this occupation: Kanaka Maoli have the highest rates of homelessness, poverty, disease and crime. They have the lowest educational achievement and life expectancy. Kanaka Maoli make up 36.5 percent of persons incarcerated for felony charges.
In the century since the U.S. occupation began, the flood of settlers stripped Kanaka Maoli of their self-determination, resembling the population crises of other occupied nations like Tibet, East Timor, and Palestine. A combination of economic, cultural and political pressures has pushed nearly one third of Kanaka Maoli into diaspora.
By generating population transfer of U.S. nationals to Hawai`i, the military has also had a profound impact on Hawai`i’s culture and political demographics. Between 1900 and 1950, migration to the Hawaiian Islands from the continental U.S. and its territories totaled 293,379. The current military-connected population of seventeen percent, including dependents and veterans, has nearly eclipsed the Kanaka Maoli population of 239,655 or 19 percent of the total population.
The U.S. military is arguably the largest industrial polluter in Hawai`i. The 2004 Defense Environmental Restoration Program report to Congress listed 798 military contamination sites at 108 installations in Hawai`i, 96 of which were contaminated with unexploded ordnance. Seven of the military contamination sites were considered “Superfund” sites. According to the Navy, the Pearl Harbor Naval Complex alone contains approximately 749 contaminated sites. These numbers are low because they do not include contaminated sites that have not yet been listed for cleanup responses. Military installations made up five of the top ten polluters in Hawai`i responsible for releasing persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals, which include lead, dioxins mercury, and polycyclic aromatic compounds.
Military contamination hazards include unexploded ordnance, various types of fuels and petroleum products; organic solvents such as perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene; dioxins and PCB; explosives and propellants such as RDX, TNT, HMX and Perchlorate; heavy metals such as Lead and Mercury; napalm, chemical weapons, and radioactive waste from nuclear powered ships. Cobalt 60, a radioactive waste product from nuclear-powered ships, has been found in sediment at Pearl Harbor. Between 1964 and 1978, 4,843,000 gallons of low-level radioactive waste were discharged into Pearl Harbor. 2,189 steel drums containing radioactive waste were dumped in an ocean disposal area 55 miles from Hawai`i.
Military contamination sites are concentrated in and pose the greatest threat to Kanaka Maoli, immigrant Asian and Pacific Islanders and other low-income communities. This is called “environmental racism”. Many Asians and Pacific Islanders subsist on fish and shellfish from Pearl Harbor's contaminated waters. The Wai`anae district, where a third of the land is occupied by military installations, has the largest concentration of Kanaka Maoli and some of the worst health, economic and social statistics in Hawai`i. In the late 1980s, powerful Navy radio transmitters in Lualualei valley were suspected to be the cause of a childhood leukemia cluster in the nearby Hawaiian Homestead.
Destruction of Native Ecosystems and Endangered Species
Hawai`i is considered the endangered species capital of the world. Because of its geographic isolation, unique species and ecosystems evolved in Hawai`i. Over 1,100 native species, around 82% of all native species are endemic to the islands. The Bishop Museum endangered species list includes 2 mammals, 32 birds, 5 reptiles,1 whole genus of snails and 289 plant species. In addition, the museum lists 24 birds, 72 snails, 74 insects and 97 plants as extinct.
Military training activities threaten native ecosystems due to fires, erosion and alteration of habitats and the introduction of alien species. Makua valley, for instance is home to over 40 endangered species and a military live fire range. More than 270 military fires over the last 10 years have destroyed the dryland forests except for the highest ridgelines.
Violence and Crime
- No one has yet compiled reliable statistics on military related crime and violence in Hawai`i. This is partly due to the fact that the political, corporate and military establishment is reluctant to portray the military in a bad light. Anecdotally, there are many tragic cases of violence involving military personnel including:
- This year an Army sergeant has been charged with the beating death of his 10-year old step daughter.
- In June 2002, a Pearl Harbor sailor violated a restraining order and brutally beat his wife to death with a skillet and stabbed her mother to death.
- In 1997, a Schofield Barracks soldier was sentenced to life for murdering a transgender prostitute.
As with other military base towns, prostitution in Hawai`i is fueled by the military presence. During World War II, the military regulated prostitution in designated red-light districts. In recent years, prostitution has become more informal and decentralized. A proliferation of strip clubs, massage parlors, escort services, hostess bars as well as street prostitution caters to military, tourist and local customers. One former prostitute estimated that in the downtown area at least 60% of those seeking prostitutes are from the military and in Wahiawa, near Schofield Barracks, that percentage jumps to 70-80%. She recounted how she was strangled by a military john until she hit him and escaped. According to an agency that helps prostitutes to get out of commercial sexual exploitation (CSE), Hawai`i is particularly susceptible to CSE and the trafficking of women and children due to the large tourism industry and military presence.
Militarization of Youth
The military recruiters have targeted low income communities of color. Native Hawaiians, Filipinos and Pacific Islanders are especially vulnerable to the economic enticements offered by recruiters.
Military recruiters now have unprecedented access to students through the military recruiter access provisions and student personal information disclosure requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act, as well as newly announced plans to hire private data mining companies to compile a database on students. In Hawai`i, the militarization of youth through reserve officer training corps (ROTC) programs, the proliferation of military imagery in popular culture and aggressive recruitment practices have also been a strategy for the accelerated assimilation and Americanization of local populations.
Since September 11, 2001, U.S. military spending in Hawai`i has increased. As a result, in 2003, military expenditures, the second largest "industry" in Hawai`i behind tourism reached $4.5 billion, a 13 percent increase over 2002. “In 2003, Hawaii ranked second in the United States, with $2,566 in per-capita defense spending….behind only one other state, Virginia, home of the Pentagon, headquarters of the U.S. Department of Defense.” The high rate of federal spending in Hawai`i has boosted industries like construction which have been detrimental to the preservation of cultural sites and natural resources. Military expansion also tends to inflate the cost of housing. Housing allowances for military personnel are based on market values and tend to increase the cost of housing generally. Military personnel in Hawai`i do not pay state income taxes. So the costs of public services are subsidized by local residents. This adds particular strains on the public school system which depend on state general funds. Federal Impact Aid, which is supposed to offset the cost of providing services for military families, only makes up 1/10th of the actual cost of educating military children.
Past Opposition to the U.S. Military Abuses in Hawai`i
Kaho`olawe measures approximately 28,800 acres and is the smallest of the eight major islands in the Hawaiian archipelago. The island is sacred to Kanaka Maoli as an embodiment of the sea god Kanaloa. Kaho`olawe was also key to Polynesian navigation and settlement of Hawai`i. Kaho`olawe contains some of the richest cultural sites in Hawai`i. Originally part of the government lands of the Hawaiian Kingdom, the Navy seized the entire island for target practice on December 8, 1941. In 1976, the Protect Kaho`olawe `Ohana launched the first of several landings on Kaho`olawe to protest the bombing. After years of direct action, demonstrations and lawsuits, President George H.W. Bush stopped the bombing in 1990. $400 million was appropriated for the clean up unexploded ordnance and restore the cultural sites and native ecosystems of the island, but the Navy failed to clean up the island to its stated goals. Instead only 1/10th of the island is now safe for human use.
Makua valley is on the west end of O`ahu. The name “Makua” means “parents.” It is believed to be one of the places where Papa and Wakea came together to create life on Earth. Makua has been used as a military training area since 1929. In 1942, the remaining residents of Makua were forcibly evicted by the military. Their homes and a church were used as targets. All types of munitions have been fired and disposed of in Makua. As a result the valley is littered with unexploded ordnance. The rich cultural sites and native forest have been destroyed or seriously damaged. Since the 1970s Kanaka Maoli have fought for the clean up and return of Makua valley. The struggle continues today as the Army pushes for expanded training in Makua.
Halawa Valley / H-3 Freeway
The H-3 Freeway project was conceived in 1963 as a defense highway to connect the Marine Corps Base in Kane`ohe with Pearl Harbor. Although activists successfully used cultural and historic preservation laws to block the freeway from passing through Moanalua Valley, the project was realigned to Halawa Valley instead. Despite initial successes at challenging the new route, activists were trumped by Senator Daniel Inouye who passed legislation that exempted the H-3 project from applicable environmental laws. The Halawa Coalition, which was led by Kanaka Maoli women, occupied the Hale-o-Papa heiau – a women’s temple in the path of the freeway - from April 1992 until their arrest in August of that year. Hale-o-Papa was saved but other sacred sites were destroyed. After 37-year struggle, the H-3 was completed at a cost of $1.3 billion, or $80 million-a-mile, the most expensive roadway ever built.
Nohili / Pacific Missile Range Facility
In the early 1990s, a coalition of Native Hawaiian and environmental organizations mobilized to block the Army Strategic Target System (STARS) missile launches at the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF). At issue were Kanaka Maoli burial sites in the sand dunes of Nohili, endangered species and contamination and accidents from the missiles. Thirty-five protesters were arrested for civil disobedience during the first two missile launches. Although the STARS program was de-funded by President Clinton in 1996, new threats emerged as PMRF’s capabilities were expanded and as work on missile defense programs later accelerated under George W. Bush. Post-September 11 security measures have blocked cultural, subsistence and recreational access to beaches at Nohili and have sparked new activism.
Waikane in windward O`ahu is rich in lore, sacred sites and traditional agricultural production. During World War II, the military leased 1,061 acres in Waikane and adjoining Wai`ahole for maneuver and live fire training until 1976. The Kamaka family, which owned 187 acres of the most heavily impacted areas, asked the Marines to clean up the unexploded ordnance as stipulated in the original lease. Instead, the Marine Corps condemned the parcel over the objections of the Kamaka family. In 2003, the Marine Corps announced plans to conduct “jungle warfare” training in Waikane as part of its war on terrorism in the southern Philippines. This triggered strong protest from the community. In a public meeting held in March 2003, the community demanded that the Marine Corps cleanup and return the Kamaka family lands in Waikane. Another important development was the solidarity from Filipina activists living in Hawai`i who challenged U.S. intervention in the Philippines as well as the training in Waikane. The Marines eventually canceled their plans for training in Waikane citing safety concerns, but they have not cleaned up the unexploded ordnance.
Pohakuloa on the island of Hawai`i is a vast plain of lava fields and native dryland forest located on the “saddle” between Mauna Kea, Mauna Loa and Hualalai mountain. The military established the Pohakuloa Training Area (PTA) in 1956. Pohakuloa encompasses116,341 acres (47,080.6 hectare), of which 84,815 acres (34,322.8 hectares) are “ceded lands”. PTA is the largest U.S. military training area in Hawai`i and the largest outside of the continental United States. Although the range is used for all types of live fire training, thousands of cultural sites have been identified within the PTA. It is the home to 21 endangered species of plants and animals. With Army proposals to expand the training area by 23,000 acres, Pohakuloa has again become a focus of resistance.
Military Expansion Threats
The Army is proceeding with plans to station a Stryker Brigade Combat Team (SBCT) in Hawai`i would bring 291 Stryker vehicles, 800 additional soldiers plus their dependents, and 28 construction projects to upgrade training, maintenance and housing facilities. One reporter called it “the biggest Army construction project in Hawai`i since World War II.”
Strykers are 20-ton light armored combat vehicles designed for rapid deployment and suppression of urban unrest. They will be stationed along with a new squadron of C-17 cargo aircraft and new high speed attack ships to provide transport for the brigade.
The Army plans to seize an additional 25,000 acres (10,117 hectares) of land (1,400 acres (566.5 ha) in Central and Northern O`ahu and 23,000 acres (9307.6 ha) adjacent to the Pohakuloa Training Area on Hawai`i Island). The extent of the Strykers’ impacts would stretch the entire length of the North Shore of O`ahu, and on Hawai`i Island, the Stryker trail would go from the port at Kawaihae on the western flank of Mauna Kea to the Pohakuloa Training Area. Despite the discovery of numerous hazardous chemicals from live fire training, proposed munitions use would increase by 25%. Cultural sites will be destroyed and the risks of fires, erosion and other environmental damage have been documented by the Army.
Navy University Affiliated Research Center (UARC)
The University of Hawai`i (UH) administration wants to establish a Navy University Affiliated Research Center (UARC). The proposed Navy UARC would conduct Navy weapons related research, including development and testing of various components of the “star wars” missile defense program and other advanced military research programs. This would have harmful impacts to Mauna Kea and Haleakala where astronomy and astrophysics research is conducted, the sand dunes of Nohili and the oceans off the north shore of Kaua’i, where missile launches and undersea warfare and sonar experiments are conducted.
A coalition of students, faculty and community launched a series of actions to protest the UARC that culminated in a week-long occupation of the UH President’s office demanding cancellation of the UARC. The protests against the UARC continue. The demonstrations may have contributed to the firing of UH Manoa Regent Englert, the main proponent of the UARC.
“Star Wars” Missile Defense
Hawai`i is used by a number of missile defense programs including the Groundbased Midcourse Defense, the Aegis Missile Defense, and Theater High Altitude Area Defense programs. The U.S. government’s demonization of North Korea as an “axis of evil” country that poses a threat to Hawai`i is used to justify the expansion of these missile defense programs.
The ‘star wars’ facilities span the island chain: Pacific Missile Range Facility in Nohili, radar tracking stations at Koke’e, Makaha Ridge, and Ka’ena Point, the Air Force Optical Tracking Station on Haleakala mountain, and the supercomputer at Kihei, Maui. Lasers are tested on Haleakala. Target missiles are launched from Kaua’i to Kwajalein atoll in the Marshall Islands, Kodiak, Alaska or towards Navy ships.
Aircraft Carrier Strike Group
One of the largest militarization threats facing Hawai`i is the proposal to homeport an aircraft carrier strike group in Hawai`i or Guam. A carrier strike group includes a nuclear powered aircraft carrier, a cruiser, two destroyers, an attack submarine and a fast combat support ship and 74 aircraft. In addition to the 3000 officers and crew of the carrier, the air wing would bring 2,600 persons. Overall, the carrier strike group would bring as many as 20,000 military personnel and their family members.
Because Pearl Harbor is not large enough to homeport an aircraft carrier, major dredging and construction would be required. This would have an adverse affect on the environment.
Politicians have offered to return the closed Barber’s Point Naval Air Station to the military in order to house the air wing. The final decision will be determined by the Quadrennial Defense Review, which is due for release later in 2005.
Current Opposition to U.S. Militarization Threats
DMZ-Hawai`i / Aloha `Aina
DMZ-Hawai’i / Aloha ‘Aina is a network of organizations and individuals working to demilitarize Hawai`i and address the negative impacts of the enormous military presence in Hawai`i. The origins of DMZ-Hawai’i / Aloha ‘Aina can be traced back to the Rethinking Militarism Conference in 2000 organized by AFSC Hawai`i, which brought together activists from various communities in Hawai`i that have resisted military impacts as well as resource people and activists from struggles in the Philippines and Puerto Rico. In 2002, key activists in this informal network convened to discuss the military expansion threats to Hawai`i and formed DMZ-Hawai’i / Aloha ‘Aina. The term “DMZ” was selected because it expressed the purpose of the network and because it changed the usual military meaning of “DMZ”. “Aloha `Aina” was included because it professed the core Kanaka Maoli value of “love for the land” and put Hawaiian cultural and political struggle at the center of this diverse grouping. The four key demands / points of unity of DMZ-Hawai’i / Aloha ‘Aina are: (1) No Military Expansion in Hawai’i; (2) Clean up and return military occupied ‘aina (land); (3) Develop sustainable economic alternatives to military dependency; and (4) Provide just compensation for harm caused by the military in Hawai`i.
The main campaigns of DMZ-Hawai`i / Aloha `Aina are to oppose the Stryker Brigade, to Stop the Navy UARC at the University of Hawai`i, to support the struggle for clean up and return of Makua valley.
The public awareness and opposition to the Strykers have grown. Actions have included pickets, marches, civil disobedience, Kanaka Maoli cultural forms of resistance and legal challenges. Three Kanaka Maoli groups have sued the Army for failing to comply with environmental impact assessment requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act. The Federal Judge ruled against the plaintiffs and the case is on appeal.
International solidarity is also key. Important linkages are being made with groups in Vieques, the Philippines, Guam, Okinawa, the Marshall Islands, Ecuador, Panama, Korea and Japan, as well as with networks like the East Asia-US-Puerto Rico Women’s Network Against Militarism, Our Land Is Our Life, the Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific movement, No US Bases Network, and the Military Toxics Project.
- The military presence in Hawai`i generates unacceptable negative social, cultural and environmental impacts and consequences. Resistance to U.S. militarization in Hawai`i will continue because of the enduring harms and injustices caused by the military in Hawai`i. The U.S. must clean up and return the lands that it wrongfully occupies in Hawai`i, beginning with the areas that are most hazardous to human health and the environment. This should be part of a peaceful process under international law of rectifying the U.S. violations of Hawaiian sovereignty and neutrality.
- The military occupation of Hawai`i fundamentally violates Hawai`i’s historical claims to sovereignty and the human rights of Hawaiian nationals. We ask non-governmental organizations and individuals to educate their constituencies and their national governments about the continuing violations of international law and treaties committed by the U.S. against Hawai`i. In the future, this could lead to diplomatic initiatives to rectify the problem.
- The military presence in Hawai`i contributes greatly to the United States’ imperial wars and interventions around the world. The U.S. strategic rivalry with the China, its hostility towards North Korea, and the realignment of US military forces and bases in East Asia will create added pressures to militarize Hawai’i. A demilitarized Hawai`i will contribute to peace around the world. Non-governmental organizations and individuals in ally countries of the U.S. could pressure their national governments to not participate in joint military exercises in Hawai`i, such as the RIMPAC exercises.
DMZ-Hawai`i / Aloha `Aina:
Ku I Ka Pono 2005:
Save UH / Stop UARC:
KAHEA-Hawaiian Environmental Alliance:
Noho Hewa Ma Hawai`i Nei (film):
Hawaiian Independence Blog:
Nation of Hawai`i:
Na Maka O Ka `Aina (film and video):
Protect Kaho`olawe `Ohana:
Submitted by: Kyle Kajihiro and Terri Keko’olani Raymond
DMZ-Hawai`i / Aloha `Aina and AFSC Hawai`i
2426 O`ahu Avenue
Honolulu, HI 96822
Tel: (808) 988-6266
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org / email@example.com