|2008.10.23 14:48||2008.10.23 14:48 | Energy & Climate Change|
Carbon Dioxide Output from Gyeonggi Province, Seoul, Gyeongsangbuk Province, and Incheon for the energy part.
-Need the support from the central government unit for establishing the inventory and guideline and making up the budget-
During April 2008 to September 2008, the Green Korea has been researched the counterplan of the climate change for Sixteen (16) Megalopolis Government Units (MGU). Especially, the research was focused on whether carbon dioxide output, whether the overall counterplan of the climate change, whether established the organization, and whether established key policies. (See the reference.) Even though many MGUs has been recognizing its important and preparing the conuterplan in the result of the research, the Central Government Unit did not suggest the standard guideline such as standardization of established the inventory. Therefore MGUs have a difficulty of the executing the policy and preparing its counterplan.
The report of carbon dioxide output with MGUs' energy usage
The Green Korea has been calculated the carbon dioxide output with sixteen MGUs' energy usage. This research was calculated only the fuel burning part which makes more greenhouse gases for comparing the all MGUs' carbon dioxide output. The carbon dioxide output of MGUs was based on "2007 local energy usage annual report". The measurement of carbon dioxide output was consumed from the usage of electricity, gases, and petroleum.
The first rank of the output was Gyeonggi-do with 67,810,202 Ton per CO2 then Seoul, Kyungsangbok Province and Incheon were on the next list. Among the total output, the percentage of the Gyeonggi-do was 20% and Seoul was 12%. Also among the industrial part, Gyeonggi-do was still in first place and Gyeongsangbuk-do was second place then Chungcheongnam-do, Ulsan, and Jeollanam-do. The MGUs who have the big output of the carbon dioxide must established the climate change counterplan policy for the enterprises and the industries. The reduction of greenhouse gases effect on industry and economic activities therefore local enterprises are also stakeholders. Especially, most local small business enterprises is not enough to prepare then major enterprises so, the CGU needs to support as soon as possible.
<Table1> Carbon dioxide output with the energy usage (per CO2)
In the output of transportation part, Gyeonggi-do was first place and Incheon was second because most of output from the consumption of Incheon International Airport's aviation fuel. The first place of the output in household and commercial part was Seoul and Gyeonggi-do was second. Especially, the percentage of Seoul was 33% in the national output of the household and commercial part. So, the output of the carbon dioxide in the household and commercial part from Seoul and Gyeonggi-do took 52% out of 100% in the nation. The output in the other area also Gyeonggi-do and Seoul took first and second place, so two MGUs need to take the initiative and set an example. Especially, Seoul and Gyeonggi-do have big portions of the energy usage and the carbon dioxide output therefore, the all citizen have to participate and practice for reduction of the carbon dioxide output. For reducing the output of carbon dioxide, we need concentrate on reduction of energy and increasing energy efficiency for the buildings.
Among the MGUs, Seoul has biggest output per the area and then Inchoen and Ulsan are next on the list. Based on the total output, all sixteen MGUs' average output is eight (8) tons of CO2 person and Ulsan has twenty-one (21) tons of CO2 per a person as the first place on the list. Per person output in Ulsan (Pop. 1,112,799) is 10 times and 6 time more then Daejeon (Pop. 1,475,961) and Gangwon-do (Pop. 1,515,800) when the compare with similar MGUs. Seoul is 4 tons CO2 as the last rank in the record.Also CO2 output per the gross domestic production is Jeollanam-do, Ulsan, Chungcheongnam-do, and Gyeongsangbuk-do in order. In this result, these MGUs made more output of CO2 the other MGUs.
MGUs' current counterplan of the climate change
In November 2007, According to the Congressman Hong, Mi-Young, who is in the United New Democratic Party (UNDP), only seven (7) MGUs have a basic of counterplan of the climate change and the positive plans include Seoul. Now, a year from that time, Ten (10) MGUs has been established the total counterplan include Gwangju, Julanam-do, and Jeju-do in research by Green Korea. Only Gyeongsangbuk-do is making a plan and other MGUs have not prepared yet. All MGUs need the greenhouse gases inventory for making a counterplan of the climate change. Ony Six (6) MGUs, Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Gyeonggi-do, Gangwon-do, and Jeju-do, have the own researched greenhouse gases inventory data. Also five (5) NGUs, Incheon, Gwangju, Ulsan, Gyeongsanganam-do, Jeollanam-do are now building a inventory and three (3) MGUs are making a plan. Even though each MGU is making a inventory plan with a budget and time, each MGU's calculating methods are different with lack of the basic static report, and low rate of reliability. Therefore, the CGU needs a standardization of inventory building, established the counterplan of the climate change, and suggesting its promotion guideline.
Also seven (7) MGUs, Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Gwangju, Gangwon-do, Jeollanam-do, and Jeju-do, have been setting up the reduction of greenhouse gases. Gwangju and Daegu are focus on the reduction of BAU but other five (5) MGUs have standarded on the absolutely needed quantity. In September 29, 2008, the main focus of the total counterplan of the climate change by the CGU has been delayed to year 2009. Although the CGU could not suggest the reduction rate of the greenhouse gases, seven (7) MGUs established its goal. Each MGUs' target year and basis year are different however, the CGU could not suggest a goal. In March 21, 2008, the Ministry of Environment (ME) has been suggested that keeping the year 2005 output rate of the greenhouse gases until year 2012 but it was too low then MGUs rate. MGUs' greenhouse gases reduction rate also did not set it up by the level and the reduction rate by the each part is also Gyeonggi-do and Gangwon-do. Therefore, MGUs' established their goal of the reduction is be MGUs administration's goal and the enterprises and people have to participate the reduction of the greenhouse gases by the level and the part.
<Table2> Each MGUs' goal of reduction
|Gwangju||Compare with y2005: Reduce by 10% in y2015 (Compare with BAU 7%), Reduce by 20% in y2020|
|Jeollanam-do||Compare with y2005: Reduce by 5% in y2012 |
(※Reduce by 10% in y2012 in Yeosu)
|Jeju-do||Compare with y2005: Reduce by 10% in y2012|
|Busan||Compare with y2005: Reduce by 10% in y2015|
|Daegu||By y2015, expecting total en energy consumption 6%, |
Reduce by 15% in y2030
|Gangwon-do||Compare with y2003: Reduce by 6% in y2012|
|Seoul||Compare with y1990: Reduce by 25% in y2020|
The success of the counterplan of the climate change is supposed to cooperate in all kind of area. Therefore, the important is who could be a general project manager (GMP). Among the sixteen (16) MGUs, the local governors of Gyeonggi-do and Gangwon-do, the Administrate mayor of Gwangju, and the affair deputy mayor of Ulsan are GMPs. Jeju has a counterplan team of the climate change for running the plan by each department. Seoul's GMP is the chef of the environment department of Seoul and the Gyeongsangnam-do' GMP is the team captain of the energy and the industry. Only eight (8) MGUs have been organized the counterplan teams for executing the counterplan of the climate change, such as, Seoul, Incheon, Gwangju, Gyeonggi-do, Gangwon-do, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Gyeongsangnam-do, and Jeju-do. Also four (4) MGUs have the task force teams, such as, Daejeon, Ulsan, Gyeonggi-do, and Jeollanam-do. Gyeonggi-do Seoul Gyeongsangbuk-do Incheon Ulsan Gyeongsangnam-do Chungcheongnam-do Busan Jeollanam-do Jeollabuk-do Chungcheongbuk-do Daegu Gangwon-do Daejeon Gwangju Jeju-do Gyeongsangnam-do and Chungcheongnam-do answered that they will open the total policy by each department. They composited the manpower by three (3) to five (5) such as, Jeju-do (3), Seoul (3), Gangwon-do(3), Gwangju(5). Also some MGUs could not have a special team, therefore, only one (1) officer complained an additional work as the counterplan of the climate change.
Only Nine (9) MGUs have a budget for the counterplan. Some of the Local Government Units (LGU) formed their owned budget or received the budget from the Environmental Management Corporation (EMC) and the Ministry of Environment (MOE). The budget of the counterplan in Seoul is about 600 hundred million won and Ulsan has about 10 million won. MOE supported the four hundred million won of budget to the LGUs, such as Seoul, Ulsan, Jeonju, and Yeongdeungpo-gu in 2006 and Jeju-do, Jeollanam-do, Suwon, Iksan, and Yeongdeungpo-gu received in 2007. However, this kind of budget is not enough to work the counterplan.
The countermeasures of the all MGUs are focused on the suppling recycle energy, reduction of CO2 from transportation, education and public relations. The problem is that the counterplan of all MGUs' trend is not focus on the local characteristic . They focus on the popularity policies. As this kind of difficulty, LGUs have to chose what is the high priority policy by the local characteristic and executing by order. Such as, transportation, industry, and forest part need the counterplan. The counterplan has been established by Gangju, Gangwon-do, Gyeongsangnam-do, and jeju-do. Gangwon-do and Jeju-do have the good counterplan. Each LUGs is not only reducing the greenhouse gases but also establishing the counterplan. All MGUs cooperated with the agenda 21 for the climate change governance.
MOE needs to support the LGUs' climate change counterplan
The base of all LGUs' counterplan is still delicate. To reduce the greenhouse gases, all LGUs make the list of inventories(?), analyze the latent of the reduction, set up the goal of the reduction, and the establish the goal for the counterplan. However, some of the MGUs did not go through the these steps, only presenting the goal. This is why the policy of the CGU has been absented the role. Until now CGU has not made the total counterplan in three (3) times and they presented the basic climate change counterplan, however they have not suggested the specific policy and the budget plan. Therefore, CGU need to have a capacity for accepting the LGUs' needs and suggestions. CGU also prepares the guideline for the counterplan such as, how to build the inventory. Especially, MOE has to support the LGUs and prepare the budget, the manpower, and the policies. Current problem is that MOE only support the some LGUs which have an agreement about the counterplan city of the climate change. Because the climate change counterplan is established by nationwide.
The reason of the this researched report is not evaluating or conducting each MGUs. It is a kind of the check list what we are prepared and what we need. However, the serious problem is that each MGU has good enough to recognize the climate change but there is no specific goal and solution. Therefore, MOE needs to cooperate with MGUs and to support their counterplan.
Reference: The Counterplan of the Climate Change Report for 16 Megalopolis Government Units